All You Have To Know About Menstrual Pain

Menstrual pain is a routine for every woman every month. Menstrual pain is normally experienced by most women because the body releases prostaglandin hormones.

Prostaglandin serves to stimulate the uterine muscle to contract, causing the blood supply to the uterus to stop for a while and increase the sensitivity of nerve endings to pain, causing pain and cramping in the stomach.

In some women, some experience menstrual pain which is felt to be very severe. Menstrual pain is categorized as abnormal menstrual pain due to disturbances in the reproductive organs. (Read Also : 5 Ways to Overcome Irregular Menstrual Periods)

To understand menstrual pain, here are two types of menstrual pain (dysmenorrhea):

Primary dysmenorrhea (dysmenorrhea / menstrual pain)

Primary dysmenorrhea is menstrual pain that occurs without any apparent gynecologic abnormalities. Primary dysmenorrhoea occurs some time after menarche, usually after menarche, generally after 12 months or more, because menstrual cycles in the first months after menarche are usually anovulatory with no pain. Pain arises before or together with menstruation and lasts for several hours, although in some cases it can last up to several days. The nature of pain is seizures that are contagious, usually confined to the lower abdomen, but can propagate to the waist and thighs. Pain can be accompanied by nausea, vomiting, headaches, diarrhea. (Read also : Watch Out for Abnormal Menstruation)

The following are the causes of primary dysmenorrhea.

  • Psychological factors
    Teenage girls who are emotionally unstable, especially if they are not well informed about the menstrual process, it is easy to develop primary dysmenorrhea. This factor, together with dysmenorrhoea is the biggest candidate to cause insomnia.
  • Constitutional factors
    This factor is closely related to mental factors that can also reduce resistance to pain, these factors are anemia, chronic disease, and so on.
  • Obstruction of the cervical canal factor
    One of the oldest theories to explain the occurrence of primary dysmenorrhoea is due to the occurrence of cervical canal stenosis. However, it is no longer considered an important factor as a cause of primary dysmenorrhoea, because many women suffer from primary dysmenorrhoea without cervical stenosis and without the uterus in hyperanteflexion, and vice versa. A stemmed submucosal myoma or endometrial polyp can cause dysmenorrhoea because the uterine muscles contract strongly to remove the abnormality. (Read Also : Cervical Cancer)
  • Endocrine factors
    Generally there is an assumption that seizures that occur in primary dysmenorrhoea are caused by excessive uterine contractions. This is because the endometrium in the secretory phase produces prostaglandin F2 alpha which causes contraction of smooth muscles. If the excess amount of prostaglandin F2 alpha is released in the bloodstream, then in addition to dysmenorrhoea, there are also common effects, such as diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting.

  • Allergy factors
    This theory was put forward after the association between primary dysmenorrhea with urticaria, migraine or bronchial asthma.

– Secondary dysmenorrhea (dysmenorrhea / menstrual pain)

Secondary dysmenorrhea is associated with organic pelvic disease, such as endometriosis, pelvic inflammatory disease, cervical stenosis, ovarian or uterine neoplasms and uterine polyps. IUD can also be a cause of this dysmenorrhoea. Secondary dysmenorrhoea can be misinterpreted as primary dysmenorrhea or may be confused with complications of early pregnancy, therapy should be shown to treat basic diseases.

Secondary dysmenorrhea is less common and occurs in 25% of women who are digmenorrhea. The causes of secondary dysmenorrhea are: endometriosis, fibroids, adenomyosis, inflammation of the fallopian tubes, abnormal adhesions between organs in the abdomen, and use of IUD.



Treatment for primary dysmenorrhea is NSAID: aspirin, naproxen, ibuprofen, indomethacin, and mefenamic acid. These drugs are often more effective if taken before pain arises.

Because dysmenorrhoea rarely accompanies bleeding without ovulation, giving oral contraceptives to suppress ovulation is also an effective treatment.

For secondary dysmenorrhea, therapy must be directed at treating basic diseases

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